Google
 

 

 

TOWARDS A NEW/OLD HUMANISM:
TRANSITIONAL STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS AS A CLUE?

By

Dejan Rakovic

e-mail: rakovic@etf.bg.ac.yu

Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Belgrade University,
P.O.Box 35-54, 11120 Belgrade, Yugoslavia
&
European Centre for Peace and Development (ECPD) of the United Nations University for Peace,
Terazije 41, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia

Abstract

It is pointed out (in the framework of the author's biophysical relativistic model of altered states of consciousness) that transitional states of consciousness represent an excellent framework for the understanding and mental control of transpersonal mystical states of consciousness described in various religious and esoteric traditions of East and West during the history of civilization, implying their real biophysical nature. The transitional character of these states also demonstrates why these phenomena are short-lasting and poorly reproducible, and also why they are most easily mentally controlled shortly before a waking/sleeping transitional state. This might also be an explanation for the extraordinary efficiency of prayer accomplished shortly before sleeping. This practice is recommended by all religious traditions. It also has significance in the mutual reprogramming of psychic conflicts (as a germ of the future interpersonal fight; as well as of the potential psychosomatic and psychological disorders of the persons in conflict); as well as during transpersonal interactions of the persons in conflict. All this suggests that a deeper biophysical understanding of the nature of consciousness and transpersonal phenomena might soon give rise to scientific understanding and empirical verification of even fundamental philosophical/religious questions (like the practical/spiritual significance of imperative moral behavior of every individual and the appearance of a new type of humanism.)

1. Introduction

It is currently estimated that the problem of consciousness belongs to the ten most significant scientific problems, owing to its potential scientific implications, including a possibility for deeper understanding of some ultimate philosophical/ religious questions. Traditionally, these have remained outside the domain of theoretical and experimental methods of natural sciences. And therefore have been a subject of deep and painful irrational divisions throughout the whole history of human civilization.

The prevailing scientific paradigm considers information processing inside the central nervous system as occurring through hierarchically organized and interconnected neural networks. There has been a development of experimental techniques enabling the physiological investigation of interactions of hierarchically interconnected neighboring levels of biological neural networks. In addition, there has been a significant contribution in establishing the neural network paradigm by theoretical breakthroughs in this field during the past decade [1]. Apart from the brain's hierarchy of neural networks, a significant role in global distribution and memorizing (over the whole cortex) of hierarchically processed information is played by brainwaves [2]. Of particular interest in this process is the extended reticular-thalamic activating system (ERTAS) [3]. ERTAS is characterized as a hierarchical system of neural networks which compares currently processed information with the one memorized in the cortex, giving priority and amplifying one piece of information to the conscious level; the remaining pieces of information rest non-amplified at unconscious levels. This is basically also the mechanism of "emotional coloring" of some information.

A particularly significant role of brainwaves involves modeling states of consciousness -- and especially altered states of consciousness. The latter state is characterized by an extraordinary acceleration in psychological information processing. This processing cannot be explained by the purely electrochemical intersynaptic processes found in biological neural networks. This is because the mechanisms of the ERTAS are not accelerated up to several orders of magnitude. Moreover, the subjective time sense is dilated in altered states of consciousness [4-6] in respect to the normal awake state.

According to the author's biophysical model for altered states of consciousness [7-9], the electromagnetic (EM) component of ultralow-frequency (ULF) "brainwaves," as related to "subjective" reference frame of consciousness, enables perfect fitting with the narrowed-down limits of conscious capacity in normal awake states and also with the very extended limits found in altered states of consciousness. These effects are due to the biophysical, relativistic mechanism of the dilated subjective time base. In this model, consciousness is a subtle internal display in the form of an EM component comprised of ULF brainwave ionic currents. Complete information (both conscious and unconscious) is permanently coded from the brain's neural networks as a spatio-temporal pattern, and is resulting from changes of the electrosynaptic interconnections in the neural networks of the brain.

Thus, according to this model, altered states of consciousness (REM sleep, meditation, hypnosis, psychedelic drug influence, some psychopathological states, and near-death experiences) are a consequence of the partial displacement of the ionic acupuncture system outside the body (when the embedded EM component of ULF brainwaves is propagating throughout this weakly ionized structured gaseous medium of low-dielectric relative permittivity, e r » 1), while normal states of consciousness (alert state, non-REM sleep, ...) are achieved when there are no such displacements (when brainwaves are propagating only through the structured brain tissue of high-dielectric relative permittivity, e r » 1)!

According to this model, dreams and dream-like hallucinogenic states are characteristics of altered states of consciousness (e r » 1). In such states, the relativistic Doppler mapping of the EM component of the "objective" ULF brainwaves power spectrum on the zero-degenerate frequency "subjective" spectrum - enables dream-like mixing of normally conscious and unconscious contents. This could be the biophysical mechanism of dreams. In particular, this implies their psychological significance. In dreams, one has continuous access and more efficient "subjective" integration of normally conscious and unconscious contents, thereby giving rise to integration and growth of human personality (which is otherwise divided into conscious and unconscious associative "ego" states). As a consequence, this process results in the alleviation of emotional conflicts [7-10]! Then meditation, as a prolonged altered state of consciousness, enables a more efficient "subjective" integration of human personality. But this is inevitably accompanied by a decay of ultradian rhythm. This rhythm governs alterations of both normal and altered states of consciousness (having a periodicity ~ 1.5 - 2 hours, in both waking and sleeping [11]). However, if a person bears strong internal psychic conflicts, i.e. "ego states," the result of such a prolonged meditation will be the integration of human personality around several of the foregoing "ego-states." This will produce the undesirable result of a multiply-divided (instead of well integrated) personality. Competent teachers of meditation are fully aware of these perils, and do not recommend its accelerated practice to psychically weak persons (for whom the main priority is often a reprogramming of psychic conflicts.) We shall consider this further on within the context of controlled transpersonal interactions in transitional states of consciousness.

The displaced ionic structure in this model must have a form of a weakly ionized gaseous "optical" neural network. This is necessary for continually inflowing information from the brain's neural networks to be "subjectively" recognized. Hence, such an ionic neural network behaves also as an optical sensor, which can perceive an environment panoramically, as reported by reanimated persons [6].

2. Transitional States of Consciousness: Biophysical Basis of Mystical States

Even the most peculiar spatio-temporal transpersonal interactions are predicted in transitional (nonstationary) states of interchange of normal and altered states of consciousness. This occurs when brainwaves traverse from high-dielectric (e r » 1) to low-dielectric (e r » 1) state or vice versa -- the relative velocity of "subjective" reference frame being therefore subjected to abrupt change in short transitional period t ~ 0,1 s, with "subjective frame" acceleration ~ co/t ~109 m/s2.

A deeper understanding of the physical mechanisms of these processes obviously sinks into the General theory of relativity. This is because physical processes in a highly accelerated reference frame outside the gravitational field and those inside a strong gravitational field with equal (gravitational) acceleration are identical. (This is the so-called Principle of equivalence, which is one of the fundamentals of both Newton's and Einstein's theories of gravitation). Theoretical analyses show [12] that in enormously strong gravitational fields, so-called "wormholes" (or Einstein-Rosen space-time bridges) are created, whose entrance and exit could be in very distant space-time points. As in transitional states of consciousness, the "subjective" reference frame (as related to an EM field of brainwaves), is subjected to a very quick change of velocity. This is accompanied by an equivalent acceleration comparable with that of one being in an enormously strong gravitational field of wormholes. This is in accordance with the Principle of equivalence. This is as one would expect in such brief states, given the creation of the Einstein-Rosen bridge. The tunneling of "subjective observer;" i.e. consciousness as previously "mentally addressed;" simply exits in space-time. Such reminiscences on passing through some sort of tunnel are often reported by many patients reanimated from clinical death [6]. It should be pointed out that apart from the EM field, the displaced part of the ionic acupuncture system (in the form of ionic neural network, having the "optical" sensory function), must also be tunneled in such (acausal) interactions of consciousness with distant events in space-time!

Hence, a space-time destination, where a deceased ionic structure is tunneled at the moment of death, depends on the post-mortem mentally loaded addressing of the dying person. Therefore, it is quite reasonable that persons from different traditions, reanimated from clinical death, are reporting on bizarre spiritual contacts with "light beings." These beings are identified as founders of their particular religious traditions (being mentally addressed as a target of prayer prior to the near-death experience). Or with a series of pleasant or unpleasant spiritual entities (contacts with them being induced by positively or negatively mentally loaded contents, successively activated in the deceased ionic structures). Or with their close relatives (being a target of personal concern of the deceased) [6].

All these near-death experiences might be categorized into so called astral projections of consciousness. These are described by some rare practitioners as not being subject to spatio-temporal limitations [14,15]. Their descriptions are quite in agreement with the transitional states of consciousness predicted by the model.

These astral projections are presumably also the basis of most psychic phenomena [16]. They also provide an explanation for the transitional nature and difficult reproducibility of these phenomena. This is because they last only ~ 0,1 s. The spontaneous conditions for them are achieved only every 1.5 - 2 hours, corresponding to the periodicity of ultradian rhythms which govern the interchange of normal and altered states of consciousness [11]. However, it should be noted that the non-low-dielectric barriers in interaction with the low-dielectric barriers are helping in overcoming themselves in these astral projections. This is quite opposite to normal experience in usual mechanical interactions [14]!

The predicted transitional states of consciousness could also be the biophysical basis of anticipationb in intuition, precognition, and deep creative insights. These states could easily be put under control by "mental addressing" on the problem chosen, shortly before a waking-sleep transitional state! On awaking, the brain would then amplify the dream concerning the solution of the problem addressed, giving to it the appropriate priority with respect to other processed information during the sleep phase. Information obtained in this way is usually mixed through associative coupling with other conscious and unconscious pieces of information during the following REM-sleep periods. This information therefore has some symbolic form, which has to be decoded through an introspective analysis of the dream. Naturally, to solve some scientific, technical, or artistic problem in this way, it is necessary for the person to be expert in the field, in order to articulate the solution obtained in the corresponding scientific, technical or artistic "language".

The above mentioned astral projections of consciousness are presumably also the basis of religious experiences. Such mental addressing on spatio-temporally displaced, energetically abundant, ionic disembodied archetype structures are found in religious traditions. They are being mentally addressed as a target of prayer in transitional states of consciousness. So, it seems that the efficacy of prayer in the self-healing of inner psychological conflicts might be a consequence of similar biophysical transpersonal interactions of the persons in conflict, and is due to the transitional states of the praying person. This effect is then accompanied by the mutualc reprogramming of interior conflicts (as a germ of future interpersonal fights, as well as of potential psychosomatic and psychological disorders). That might provide an explanation for the extraordinary efficiency of prayer accomplished shortly before sleeping, which is recommended by all religious traditions (with direct mental addressing to the person in conflict, or energetically more efficientd indirect mental addressing via ionically abundant disembodied archetype structures), when it is easiest to control the addressed mental contents prior the waking/sleeping transitional state!

3. Conclusion: At the Threshold of New/Old Humanism?

It is hereby demonstrated that the author's model of altered and (particularly!) transitional states of consciousness is an excellent biophysical framework for various states of consciousness described in religious and esoteric traditions of East and West, implying their real biophysical nature. And also its significance for understanding mechanisms of transpersonal mystical and other transitional states of consciousness.

The transitional character of mystical states also demonstrates why these phenomena are short-lasting and poorly reproducible, and also why they are most easily mentally controlled shortly before a waking/sleeping transitional state.

All this suggests that a deeper biophysical understanding of the nature of consciousness and transpersonal phenomena might soon gives rise to a scientific understanding and empirical verification of even fundamental philosophical/religious questions (like the practical/spiritual significance of imperative moral behavior of every individual, which is extremely important for the accelerated integration and spiritual evolution of personality) - and appearance of a new/old humanism; a new/old one without meaningless, painful interpersonal, inter-ethnical, and inter-religious conflicts.

Acknowledgments: This paper is devoted to my late brother George Janjic, with permanent gratitude for crucial intellectual and spiritual impulses in early youth. I am also deeply indebted to my colleagues and friends G. Stanojevic-Vale , P. Vujicin, M. Golubovic, M. Trajkovic, D. -akovic, D. Kozic, D. Koruga, A. Skokljev, D. Dordevic, and Z. Jovanovic-Ignjatic, for pointing at significant references on this broad subject.


  1. To support this, one can cite the technique adopted by "psychics" when they want to exert some distant influence. They always intensely visualize the person or place as mental targets! On the other hand, this could be deeply connected with the role of consciousness in quantum theory of measurement, where consciousness with its act of observation affects the final collapse of the initial wave function into one of several possible probabilistic eigenstates. This implies that the collapse could be related with the generation of a local Einstein-Rosen bridge in highly noninertial processes of interactions of microparticles with measuring apparatus [8,9], equivalent to strong gravitational effects of crucial importance for this process [13].

  2. According to the computer experiments with random number generators [17], only nonactualized possible futures can be anticipated (more accurately for a priori greater probabilities of their realization), in accordance with a quantum mechanical viewpoint. It should be added that the physical interaction of the displaced gaseous ionic "optical" neural network with possible "objective" system (described by possible wave function Yi ) or corresponding possible state of "collective consciousness" (Fi ), in "astral projections" during transitional states of consciousness - also opens a question on the nature of wave functions -- which should provide a picture of quantum-level physical reality (not only serving as a calculation device, useful merely for calculating probabilities, or as an expression of the experimenter's "state of knowledge" concerning physical system)! Then by changing the initial state of "collective consciousness" (F) one can influence probabilities ( |ai|2 ) of realization of corresponding states Fi , i.e. possible objective states Yi (as the composite initial state of "objective" system and "collective" observer is a superposition of all possible composite states, YF = aiYiFi ). As the very state of "collective consciousness" (F) is a composite state constituted of (noninteracting) states of all "individual consciousness" (jk), F ~ jk, it follows that the change of state jk of "individual consciousness" can affect the state F of "collective consciousness", and therefore the probabilities for realization of possible objective states Yi). This is particularly true if the state F is very sensitive on small changes of initial conditions, which is the case for physical systems described by deterministic chaos [18]. Having in mind that the brain and corresponding state jk of "individual consciousness" is such a kind of system, then the composite state F of "collective consciousness" is also described by deterministic chaos --and therefore very sensitive on small changes in initial conditions! Such a conclusion implies extraordinary practical significance of contents of our "individual consciousness", as they directly determine the probability of realization of possible objective states Yi , i.e. the future events, no matter how bizarre this conclusion looks like [8,9]! In that context, what is actually anticipated in transitional states of "individual consciousness" might be [8,9] the evolved state of "collective consciousness" F(t) in some future moment (to which "individual consciousness" has access, being the constitutional part of "collective consciousness"), which is quantum-mechanically described by deterministic unitary evolution governed by Schrodinger equation (or Dirac equation in relativistic case). However, the anticipated state F(t) could be redefined by the changing initial state ji of "individual consciousness," thereby leaving room for free will and the possibility for influence on the future. In this respect, it is quite possible that strong preferences in individual or collective futures exist, governed by karmical interpersonal loads, as it is claimed in the Eastern tradition. Along the same line, it might also be possible that spiritual cleansing (by prayer or some other esoteric technique) is the efficient mechanism for changing the initial state of several interrelated "individual consciousness," and hence "collective consciousness;" thus changing anticipated preferences for both individual and collective futures [15,19].

  3. That could possibly be the reason for Christianity's insistence on repenting and forgiving ("And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors", Mt.6,12). It represents a level of spiritual maturity of a person. This implies an obligation of spiritually mature persons to help in reprogramming conflicts by praying, even when they themselves are victims of the conflicts ("But I say unto you, love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you", Mt.5,44). It is not even allowed to see evil in fellow-men and condemn them (an old biblical commandment given to the man in paradise, forbidding to take food "of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil" -- in fellow-men -- "for in the day that you eat there-of you shall die" (Gen.2,17), whose violation has caused the Adam's fall), insisting only on personal repenting and forgiving, as the only way in reprogramming psychic conflicts. Anything else enhances the existing mental/emotional personal loads and enlarges evil in the world, thus dismissing an individual and humankind from the final spiritual ideal of a sinless state of consciousness.


  4. The displaced (outside the body) part of the ionic acupuncture system of the estimated initial ionic concentration nj ~ 1015 cm-3 (supporting the ULF brainwave ionic currents ~ 10-7 A) has a significant tendency of deterioration during a period of ~ 1 hour [7,8], as the partial ionic pressure at room temperature is much more greater than the magnetic pressure which pinches the ionic channel. However, the stability condition of disembodied ionic structures could be met under equilibrium of the two pressures, when nj ~ 1024 cm-3 [8]. It is obvious that this concentration exceeds by ~ 109 times that one in the displaced deteriorating ionic structure, and that greater would be the current flowing through the ionic channels (Io ~ 100 A). That concentration is also ~ 104 times greater than bodily ionic concentration, which is obviously non-adapted and risky for direct contact with biological species, but not with those biological ionic structures displaced in transitional states of consciousness far beyond the body. This condition might be subjected to appropriate corrections of their (disordered) ionic distributions and concentration, causing after transitional state of consciousness (and returning of these structures inside the body) the positive backward effect on the acupuncture ionic system of the individuals, and hence on their psychosomatic healing [8]. So, it seems that the healing process can be related with the transfer of ions (qi, prana, pneuma, ether ...) and/or transfer of the EM information patterns, responsible for normal functioning of acupuncture system and overall health. In that context, it seems that other esoteric notions [15,20] such as subtle body (manomaya, lingasarira, manovijnana, ka, psyche, astral body, psychic body ...) and mental body (vijnanamaya, suksmasarira, manas, ba, thymos, mind, noetic body ...) are biophysically inevitably associated with a partly displaced (from the body) ionic acupuncture system. And including an EM component of ULF ionic currents embedded within it, respectively; on that line. The ionic condensations in the structured acupuncture system, along with an EM component of ULF ionic currents embedded within it, behave like "distributed centers of consciousness." This is presumably the biophysical basis of yogic chakras [7,8]. It should be also added that ionic acupuncture currents, and accompanied EM fields, have both ultralow-frequency (ULF) and microwave (MW) components. I.e., the MW component is modulated by the ULF component: in support to the ULF nature of ionic currents in acupuncture channels. Also in support, one can cite the resonance ULF (~ 4 Hz) stimulation of the acupuncture analgesia endorphin mechanism [21]. On the other hand, the evidence for the MW component of ionic acupuncture currents is provided by resonance MW (~ 50-80 GHz) therapy, efficient even in very serious diseases [22]. According to former Soviet inventors of the resonance MW therapy, Sit'ko and his collaborators, the acupuncture system is a dynamic structure, differentiated at the locations of maximums of three-dimensional standing waves, and is formed as a result of the reflection of coherent microwave (~ 100 GHz [23]). Fröhlich excitations of molecular subunits in the cell membranes and proteins are also supported by other investigations which have demonstrated that differentiation of the intercell "gap junctions" (of higher density at acupuncture points and meridians) is slightly sensitive to voltage [24]. In that context, the explanation for efficiency of this method should be sought: as some disorders in the organism give rise to a deformation in the structure of electrical field of the organism in the MW region. This influences some changes in the spatial structure of the acupuncture system, and consequently its resonance frequency, resulting in some disease. During therapy, applying MW sound at the corresponding acupuncture point results in the excited acupuncture system of the patient to relax to its previous healthy condition. Thus, while reaching its normal frequency response within the wide spectrum MW source -- and according to physiological mechanisms of acupuncture regulation [25] -- the organism biochemically overcomes the disease.

References

  1. R.Hecht-Nielsen, Neurocomputing (Addison-Wesley, New York, NY, 1990).
  2. E.R.John, Switchboard versus statistical theories of learning and memory, Science 177 (1972), pp. 850-864; E.R.John, T.Yang, A.B.Brill, R.Young, and K.Ono, Double-labeled metabolic maps of memory, Science 233 (1986), pp. 1167-1175; R.Eckhorn, R.Bauer, W.Jordan, M.Brosch, W.Kruse, M.Munk, and H.J.Reitboeck, Coherent oscillations: A mechanism of feature linking in the visual cortex?, Biol. Cybern. 60 (1988), pp. 121-130; C.M.Gray, P.Konig, A.K.Engel, and W.Singer, Oscillatory responses in visual cortex exhibit inter-columnar synchronization which reflects global stimulus properties, Nature 338 (1989), pp. 334-337; F.Crick and C.Koch, Towards a neurobiological theory of consciousness, Seminars in the Neurosciences 2 (1990), pp. 263-275; F.Crick, The Astonishing Hypothesis. The Scientific Search for Soul (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, and Maxwell Macmillan International, 1994).
  3. K.R.Poper and J.C.Eccles, The Self and Its Brain (Springer, Berlin, 1977), Chs. E2,8; B.J.Baars, A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA, 1988).
  4. In C.Tart, ed., Altered States of Consciousness (Academic, New York, 1972).
  5. K.Jaspers, Algemaine Psychopathologie (Springer, Berlin, 1953).
  6. R.A.Moody, jr., Life after Life (Bantam, New York, 1975); W.Evans Wentz, The Tibetan Book of the Dead (Oxford Univ., London, 1968); Fr. Seraphim Rouz, The Soul After Death (St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, Platina, CA, 1980).
  7. D.Rakoviæ, Neural networks, brainwaves, and ionic structures: Acupuncture vs. altered states of consciousness, Acup. & Electro-Therap. Res., Int. J. 16 (1991), pp. 88-99.
  8. D.Rakoviæ, Brainwaves, neural networks, and ionic structures: Biophysical model for altered states of consciousness, in D.Rakoviæ and -.Koruga, eds., Consciousness: Scientific Challenge of the 21st Century (ECPD, Belgrade, 1995), pp. 291-316; D.Rakoviæ, Fundamentals of Biophysics (Grosknjiga, Belgrade, 1994,1995), Chs. 5,6, in Serbian.
  9. D.Rakoviæ, Prospects for conscious brain-like computers: Biophysical arguments, Informatica 21 (1997), No.3: Special Issue on Consciousness as Informational Phenomenalism, in press; D.Rakoviæ, Consciousness and quantum collapse: Biophysics versus relativity, The Noetic J. 1 (1997), No.1, in press.
  10. D.Rakoviæ, Neural networks versus brainwaves: A model for dream-like states of consciousness, Proc. 14th Ann. Int. Conf. IEEE/EMBS (1992), pp. 2651-2652.
  11. R.Broughton, Human consciousness and sleep/waking rhythms, in B.B.Wolman and M.Ullman, eds., Handbook of States of Consciousness (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1986).
  12. K.S.Thorne, Black Holes and Time Warps: Einstein's Outrageous Legacy (Picador, London, 1994), Ch. 14, and references therein.
  13. R.Penrose, Shadows of the Mind, A Search for the Missing Science of Consciousness (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 1994), Part II, and references therein.
  14. R.Monroe, Journeys Out of the Body (Doubleday & Co., Garden City, NY, 1971).
  15. K.C.Markides, Fire in the Heart. Healers, Sages and Mystics (Paragon House, New York, 1990).
  16. R.G.Jahn, The persistent paradox of psychic phenomena: An engineering perspective, Proc. IEEE 70 (1982), pp. 136-170.
  17. D.I.Radin, Effects of a priori probability on PSI perception: Does precognition predict actual or probable futures, J. Parapsych. 52 (1988), pp. 187-212.
  18. A.Babloyantz, Chaotic dynamics in brain activity, in E.Basar, ed., Dynamics of Sensory and Cognitive Processing by the Brain (Springer, Berlin, 1988), pp. 196-202.
  19. Swami Rama, Living with the Himalayan Masters (Himalayan Int. Inst. of Yoga Sci. & Phil., Honesdale, PA, 1978).
  20. K.Wilber, The Atman Project (Quest, Wheaton (IL), 1980); P.Vujièin, States of consciousness in esoteric practice, in D.Rakoviæ and -.Koruga, eds., Consciousness: Scientific Challenge of the 21st Century (ECPD, Belgrade, 1995), pp. 87-134, and references therein.
  21. B.Pomeranz, Acupuncture research related to pain, drug addiction and nerve regeneration, in B.Pomeranz and G.Stux, eds., Scientific Bases of Acupuncture (Springer, Berlin, 1989), pp. 35-52.
  22. S.P.Sit'ko, Ye.A. Andreyev, and I.S. Dobronravova, The whole as a result of self-organization, J. Biol. Physics 16 (1988) 71-73; S.P. Sit'ko and V.V. Gizhko, Towards a quantum physics of the living state, J. Biol. Physics 18 (1991) 1-10; see also S.P. Sit'ko, Quntum physics of the alive: medical aspects, this Proc. ECPD Workshop, 1997, and references therein.
  23. H. Fröhlich, Long-range coherence and energy storage in biological systems, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 2 (1968), pp. 641-649.
  24. E.R.Kandel, J.H.Schwartz, and T.M.Jessell, eds., Principles of Neural Science (Elsevier, New York, 1991), Ch.9.
  25. Y.Omura, Acupuncture Medicine (Japan Publ. Inc., Tokyo, 1982).

Copyright 1998, Dejan Rakovic, All Rights Reserved

21st, The VXM Network, http://www.vxm.com

s