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Thoughts on How the World Represents Itself to the Mind
and Some Practical Consequences for the Study of Energy and Fields

Dennis Stillings



ABSTRACT: Our concepts of fields have arisen out of the intimate relationship between mind and matter and the ability of matter to represent its actual structure and dynamics in symbolic form within the psyche. Indeed, the psyche itself possesses structures and effects that have direct analogies to physical fields. The relationship between these psychic and symbolic representations and the creation of physical theories can lead to a confusion of myth and folklore with objective science and can even lead to psychological disturbances.

Mind and Matter: Symbolic Representations

WHEN CARL GUSTAV JUNG began his work in psychology, he placed a strong emphasis on physical methods and measurements. By the use of the psychogalvanometer, and by timing of patients' responses during his word-association tests, he determined the nature and effects of psychological complexes; he was, in fact, the person who introduced the term complex into the psychological lexicon. Later, when Jung was developing the ideas of the collective unconscious and the archetype, he did so always with an eye toward physics and the nature of matter and he felt that any real depth psychology would lead ultimately to ideas relating to the structure of the physical world. In 1924, Jung wrote:

... This strange encounter [the Principle of Indeterminacy] between atomic physics and psychology has the advantage of giving us at least a faint idea of a possible Archimedean point for psychology. [Jung complained of the epistemological difficulties in using the psyche to study the psyche.] The microphysical world of the atom exhibits certain features whose affinities with the psychic have impressed themselves even on the physicists. Here, it would seem, is at least a suggestion of how the psychic process could be "reconstructed" in another medium, in that, namely, of the microphysics of matter. [1]
Jung's belief that the psyche would involve physics at the subatomic level led to an ongoing dialogue between Jung's ideas and the ideas of modern physicists, from Wolfgang Pauli to Robert Jahn. Jung's psychology is the only psychology that permits this to occur. Jung held the belief very strongly that, at bottom, physics and psychology were both describing the same reality, but from different sides. This point of view derived from his reading of Kant and to an even greater extent from his reading of Schopenhauer. Jung's "collective unconscious" is the empirical version of Kant's Ding an Sich, the metaphysical unconscious in the philosophies of Carus and von Hartmann, and the "Will" of Schopenhauer. Jung's comprehensive study of alchemy, with its preoccupation with matter and the psyche and its notion of the Unus Mundus and man as the microcosm of the macrocosm, confirmed his belief that inner and outer worlds reflected each other and that the study of the one would inevitably lead to the border where the other began.
The universal image of the world is a psychological fact...though it is influenced, I admit, by something beyond our psychology. What that is we don't know. There the physicist has the last word: he will inform us that it consists of atoms and peculiar things within the atoms, but that hypothesis is constantly changing, and there we have clearly come to a certain end. If he goes a bit further he begins to speculate, then he falls into the mind, and presumably he falls right into the collective unconscious, where he discovers the psychologist already at work. The speculative modern physicist will surely come into very close contact with the psychologist, and as a matter of fact he already has. [2]

Psyche cannot be totally different from matter, for how otherwise could it move matter? And matter cannot be alien to psyche, for how else could matter produce psyche? Psyche and matter exist in one and the same world, and each partakes of the other, otherwise any reciprocal action would be impossible. If research could only advance far enough, therefore, we should arrive at an ultimate agreement between physical and psychological concepts. [3]

Such beliefs are not without practical consequences. It becomes theoretically possible to derive ideas about the nature of the inner world by examining the structure and dynamics of the external world, and it is possible to develop ideas and critiques relating to the external world from the examination of inner archetypal/symbolic productions-such as occur in dreams and fantasy

We know about Kekule's dreams relating to the discovery of the benzene ring, [4.] but it is unlikely that the psychological correlates have ever been pointed out and discussed in relation to other theoretical ideas about microphysics and even astrophysics. Yet we can find that even the most "scientific" of theories-such as those about black holes, dark matter, and superstrings-are traceable back to the earliest mythologies. [5.] We tend to discount this as some sort of poetic coincidence, but it is really the case that our perceptions, our way of organizing experience, is structured in specific ways and this determines how we will see things and how we will think about them.

As Robert Jahn pointed out in a recent lecture, [6] man thought in terms of particles and waves long before the physics of them was developed. When we observe the behavior of photons, we are forced to see them in terms of either particles or waves. There is a particle/wave aspect to consciousness itself. This interrelationship between mind and matter was expressed by Emerson when he wrote
[The] enchantments [of nature] are medicinal ... . We come to our own, and make friends with matter, which the ambitious chatter of the schools would persuade us to despise. We can never part with it; the mind loves its old home.

... Man carries the world in his head, the whole astronomy and chemistry suspended in a thought. Because the history of nature is characterized within his brain, therefore is he the prophet and discoverer of her secrets. Every known fact in natural science was divined by the presentiment of somebody, before it was actually verified... .

... Nature is the incarnation of a thought, and turns to a thought again. ... The world is thought precipitated ... [h]ence the virtue and pungency of the influence on the mind of natural objects, whether inorganic or organized [7].

Melville put it even more simply and clearly:
"O soul of man! how far beyond all utterances are your linked analogies! not the smallest atom ... but has its cunning duplicate in mind."

Even as modern a notion as holography has its "cunning duplicate" a priori in the mind. The fact that each part of a holographic representation contains the entire image has been stated in symbolic terms, derived from inner perceptions, long before the corresponding technology became available.

The liber Hermetis defines God as "an infinite sphere whose center is everywhere and the circumference nowhere."[8]

Much later, Emerson wrote:
under every tree, in the speckled sunshine and shade, no man notices that every spot of light is a perfect image of the sun ...Every part of nature represents the whole.[9]
Schopenhauer, in the dense and complicated language of Teutonic philosophy, put it this way:
If, according to what has so far been said, all variety of forms in nature and all plurality of individuals belong not to the will [read: unconscious], but only to its objectivity and to the form thereof, it necessarily follows that the will is indivisible and is wholly present in every phenomenon...10]

Jung himself used quasi-holographic, quantum mechanical imagery when he wrote:

Unfortunately it is impossible to have a look into the unconscious without disturbing it, for no sooner do you look than it is already disturbed. It is like trying to observe the process in the interior of the atom; in the instant of observation, a disturbance is created-by observing you produce distortion. But let us assume that you could look into the unconscious without disturbing anything: you would then see something which you could not define because everything would be mixed with everything else even to the minutest detail [i.e., everything is everywhere]. It is not that certain recognizable fragments of this and that are mixing or contacting or overlapping: they are perfectly unrecognizable atoms so that you are even unable to make out to what kind of bodies they eventually will belong-unrecognizable atoms producing shapes which are impossible to follow. [11]

Consciousness, with its peculiar structure conditioned by the influence of the relatively unconscious personal complexes, is the "light" that makes the latent images in the indeterminant collective unconscious coherent.

From such examples as these-and many others can be adduced-it is clear that both our scientific theories, and the technologies that arise from them, are derived from symbolic representations of the preexisting structure and dynamics of the collective unconscious. I would further argue that our habit of using concepts such as computers and holography as the bases for models to explain, for instance, human brain activity, is both reliable and misleading. To the extent that we believe such models are other than mere approximations to ultimately irreducible archetypal symbols, we are misled; on the other hand, it is true that all our technologies and scientific models are, at bottom, psychobiomimetic representations of how the will-in Schopenhauer's sense-or the collective unconscious-in Jung's conception-represents itself to the limited perceptual capacities of our conscious minds. Technology and scientific modeling are forms of hieroglyph pointing to an essentially transcendental reality.

This psychobiomimesis permits the conjecture that we may be able to apply our knowledge of psychic structure and dynamics fruitfully to the understanding of the external world (Kekule's dreams) as well as to apply our discoveries in science and technology to an elaboration of our knowledge of the psyche. I believe that all this lies at the heart of what Robert Jahn and Brenda Dunne have attempted to do in their ground-breaking work, Margins of Reality [12].

Wah-Space and the Fields of the Psyche

IF WE LOOK AT FIELDS from the psychological point of view, we see that the notion of fields already lies within the structure of the psyche. Psychological complexes exert a field effect, based on their energic level, that can interfere at any moment with conscious processes-we forget a well-known name, we say the wrong thing, we do something we never intended. These energic effects of the complex can in fact be measured indirectly by means of the word-association tests, [13] in which the subject's time lag in response to a word reflects the gravitational pull that the underlying complex has on the meaning of that word. The archetype, which lies behind the complex, has even greater power, and its field effects can extend to an unknown distance and order psychological and even physical events-as in the case of synchronicity. In prepsychological times these structures of the unconscious were projected into nature as magical beings, into the heavens as astrology, and into gross matter in the peculiar formulations of alchemy.

Consciousness itself has been conceptualized as a field. According to Jung, the ego is the center of the "field of consciousness" which, theoretically, has no limits. [14] This "field of consciousness" can be expanded both legitimately, through spiritual disciplines and self-knowledge, or pathologically, through mental disorder or drug intoxication. [15] William James spoke of "transmarginal field" of consciousness, the structure and dynamics of which he formulated as follows:

The important fact that this 'field' formula commemorates is the determination of the margin [of consciousness]. Inattentively realized as is the matter which the margin [of consciousness] contains, it is nevertheless there, and helps both to guide our behavior and to determine the next movement of our attention. It lies around us like a 'magnetic field' inside of which our center of energy turns like a compass needle as the present phase of consciousness alters into its successor. Our whole past store of memories floats beyond this margin, ready at a touch to come in...[16]
The psyche, then, has its own fields, and these fields control both our conscious and unconscious perceptions. I have chosen to call this energic topology of the psyche wah-space, using a term, borrowed from hippie lingo, that means, roughly, mana. Wah-space is the unconscious in its energic aspect. Wah-space has special effects. Two of the most important are: (1) conscious perception of time and distance are distorted by projected wah-space in ways determined by the continually changing flux of wah or, in other words, the psychic energy available at various times to any of the complexes in one's wah-space; and (2) objects and ideas are equated or differentiated in wah-space on the basis of wah-content. In other words, if two objects, say a tree and a bird, have equal wah, they are equal in wah-space. Let me give you some examples, first from the external world.

One case involves a highly intuitive person who was virtually devoid of sensation function. When I was first introduced to her, the person who made the introduction told me to ask the woman about her favorite house-a house nearby that she particularly admired. I was then asked to ask her where the house was located. She replied: "On the corner." She was very definite about this. When we walked over to the location of the building, it was actually in the middle of the block. As it turned out, the house was "perfect," except for the fact that it was not on the corner, but this intuitive person, who lived much of the time in wah-space, had exteriorized the space-distorted image of wah-space into the external world. This "experiment" could be repeated after sufficient time had elapsed. She would again misremember the exact location of the house. A more graphic example is the famous cover of The New Yorker, done by Saul Steinberg. This illustration depicts the way New Yorkers see the rest of the world when facing west. This is an excellent portrayal of wah-space topology applied to the perception of the external environment.

Now we can ask-what happens to the inner perception of information when it enters wah-space?

For our purposes here, I will limit myself to the phenomena of parapsychology. And I would like to ask the somewhat radical question: Why is it that when we do telepathic experiments, or remote viewing, we don't always receive clear images? In "remote viewing"-or, better, "remote perception"-the percipient (the person who attempts to gain paranormal knowledge of a predetermined remote site) gives descriptions of "target" location unknown to the percipient and chosen randomly from a pool of possible target sites. While the percipient gives a description of the target site verbally, the target site is visited by an "outbound" agent in the experiment (who himself does not know what the target will be until after he leaves the lab and opens a sealed envelope). In other trials, the descriptions are given by the experimental percipient prior to the time the target is visited by the outbound "sender." This is known as "precognitive remote viewing."

We should understand that even if the agent or sender in a remote viewing experiment were talking to a remote-viewing percipient over the phone, describing the very scene he was looking at, the scene being verbally described by the sender would be very apt to have but sketchy resemblance to what the percipient drew or imagined. But when we do a remote viewing experiment, the problems of communication are compounded not, I would contend, by the presumed difficulty and rarity of achieving paranormal communication-I believe there is always communication-but by the passage of such information through the shared wah-space of the percipient and agent (or, for that matter, of the percipient's wah-space alone, when there is no agent or sender). The particular objects in any perceived scene will be assigned different energy values according to the nature of the agent's psychological complexes, which are probably substantially different from the percipient's. In fact, the unconscious influence of his projected wah-space topology will cause him to assign little conscious attention to some things, while exaggerating the importance of others. Therefore, one wah-space-distorted scene is sent on to be redistorted by the percipient. Objects that might be of low value to the agent may have high value to the percipient, so some sort of "equivalent image" will be supplied by wah-space. Where an agent, a New Yorker, might focus on sending the image of a bagel in a deli, the percipient in Minnesota might "receive" the image of a doughnut. In this case you would have an example of how wah-space equates one thing with another on the basis that bagels are an historically prominent regional food of one area, doughnuts of the other. Swedenborg, in speaking of the realm of angels, gives us a rather poetic description of "living in wah-space":
Although all things in heaven appear in place and in space as they do in the world, still the angels have no notion or idea of place and space. [In fact,] all progressions in the spiritual world are effected by changes of the state of the interiors. ... Hence, those are near each other who are in a similar state, and those far apart whose state is dissimilar; and spaces in heaven are nothing but external states corresponding to internal ones. This is the only case that the heavens are distinct from each other. When anyone proceeds from one place to another he arrives sooner when he desires it, and later when he does not. The way itself is lengthened or shortened according to the strength of the desire. ... This I have often witnessed, and have wondered at. From these facts it again is evident, that distances, and consequently spaces, exist with the angels altogether according to the states of their interiors; and such being the fact, that the notion and idea of space cannot enter their thoughts; although spaces exist with them equally as in the world.
A striking example of how wah-space causes the equating of one scene with another comes from an actual remote viewing experiment in which the percipient was given the coordinates of a Soviet airforce base. The percipient did not know that he would be remote viewing any such site. He reported back that he was seeing what appeared to be a hydroelectric plant. The percipient was then asked to rise high into the air above the dam and look around. He did so, and reported that he now saw the airfield some five miles distant. One might be tempted to look at this as a spatial error-of the same sort as missing the bull's-eye of a target in a game of darts-but the error was actually due to the distortions of wah-space in which the two-the hydroelectric plant and the airfield-are equivalent. A moment's reflection might tell you why. The airfield may have been very quiet at the time of the remote viewing, but nearby was another object, the hydroelectric plant, which probably had a powerful roar, with turbines whining, and a number of other features analogous to what the Soviet airfield would be like if it were busy. The unconscious had readily substituted the one for the other because they were equated on the basis of the common images, except that one, the hydroelectric plant, was evincing more emotion-provoking sensations than the [17]field.

The questions arise: Is there some way to decode such a displacement? Can the error, in terms of external reality, be rationalized by first detecting some signature in the "erroneous" information that indicates that something has been substituted for something else? Can the error be "decoded" to give some clue of what the real target might be? (Of course, in this example, the real target was known, but this would not be the case in other experiments involving remote viewing.) Finally, is there some way to map wah-space? I believe that there is. Mapping wah-space would involve characterization of the space in terms of the energic values of the fields of influence generated by personal complexes and archetypes. The energy levels of the personal complexes in an individual taking part in an experiment can be determined by indirect physiological measurements and by the word-association tests.

If, for instance, a person has a very strong complex associated with a neurosis-e.g., claustrophobia-any transmission involving the interior of a closed space will be apt to result in considerable repression or distortion. The degree of repression or distortion might be expected to vary with the degree of claustrophobia. It might then be possible to use scenes and imagery that avoid stimulating distorting complexes. On the other hand, it might also be possible that such complexes could be used as amplifiers, and that such persons would also be highly sensitive to the transmission of images that were aimed directly at their strongest complexes. I believe that extremely interesting and productive experiments could be constructed to test these possible effects [18].

The Demonology and Angelology of Field Theories: Electromythologies of the Late 20th Century

And even your, my dear good ... Physicists, what an amount of error, of rudimentary psychology still adheres to it!

-- F. W. Nietzsche, Twilight of the Idols

UP TO THIS POINT, we have been discussing the relationship between mind and matter and how scientific theories and technologies arise out of symbolic prefigurations of those very theories and technologies. We have also looked at some ideas about the structure and dynamics of the psyche that have analogies to observations in physical science. We will next consider the sorts of archetypal imagery that underlie preoccupation with invisible forces and the effect of that imagery on the ideas and obsessions often accompanying investigations in these areas.

For thousands, perhaps hundreds of thousands, of years, humans believed in the existence of invisible forces that had both positive and negative effects on physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. These forces were personified and given peculiar names. These invisible-force-beings behaved in a rather arbitrary fashion, were hard to detect except under very special conditions, and resisted appearing on demand.

Today, there is intense renewed interest in the existence of invisible forces and their effects on physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. These forces are classified as "fields," and they are often given peculiar names; some of them are hard to detect; and their actions are often hard to summon forth on demand. The names of such fields in all their basic and hybrid forms tempt one into constructing a demonology and angelology of the invisible electromagnetic world. Now we have scalars and excitons and solitons and phonons, while in the not-too-distant past one might have spoken of the angels Metatron, Semalion, Genon, and Ballaton. Electricity has been connected with theology, magic, alchemy, and the unconscious since the beginning of the electrical science in the 18th century. [19] The pantheon of Indian religion contains innumerable gods whose attributes include being "all-pervasive."

These connections lie at the base of formulations about chi, odic force, orgone energy, eloptic energy, and the literally dozens of conceptions of some sort of specifically biological energy fields and "vibrations" that persistently resist all attempts at definitive physical detection and mechanical application. In the time of alchemy, this underlying "energy" was called Mercurius. [20] As the electrical science developed, it became secularized. The energy that could be tapped by plugging a cord in the wall and throwing a switch could no longer attract mythological projections, so two things happened: (1) new mysterious energies were conceived of; and (2) theories about electromagnetic fields were extended into elusive ideas about Tesla electromagnetics, scalars, and formulations about luminous, hybrid, angel-like particles such as solitons and excitons.

We are not that far removed from the days of magic and myth. Some-myself included-would assert that we live in the most active mythogenetic period since the time of the ancient Greeks. And this mythogenesis is no less active in science than elsewhere.

This mythological background causes sciences of the invisible to carry a much larger burden than is warranted. On the one hand, skepticism and resistance to investigations of the invisible is stimulated by unconscious fears connected to unconscious associations with the spooks and hobgoblins of the invisible world. On the other hand, researchers in the field often become unconsciously possessed by the mythic-religious fascinosum that preoccupation with invisible forces evokes.

In an extreme example, some investigators associate the ELF frequency of 6.66 (the Number of the Beast) with disease and death. They associate ELF frequencies of 7 and 8, classically very positive numbers, with physical and even spiritual benefits. Since the symbology imbedded in invisible-forces research has a strong religious aspect, many researchers become almost evangelical in their theorizing. Their zeal is characterized by strong faith and claims that go far beyond what is warranted by the evidence. "Cults" based on the supposed existence and behavior of anomalous fields have been formed both to possess and to seek the secrets of the invisible. These cults have leaders and saviors, both living and dead (Tesla), who attribute godlike powers to these fields. Some speak of infinite energy and the creation of worlds by will alone. Cosmic imagery often accompanies the archetypes relating to religious revelations. The properties of ELF waves make them particularly suitable for the projection of unconsciously conceived divine attributes of either a positive or negative sort. These waves, which travel with the speed of light, penetrate everywhere (omniscient, omnipresent), cannot be shielded against (omnipotent), can heal or harm at a distance, and are, of course, invisible. There are even talismans to attract and/or repel these invisible forces-such as the Teslar watch.

But what exists in exaggerated form in the minds of fanatics often leaks, in a more disguised fashion, into the thinking and attitudes of soberer individuals. The best clue one has as to whether and to what extent one is in thrall to this archetype is to measure the strength of the emotional component that accompanies one's speculations and arguments about the nature of electromagnetic and other fields, and to keep reviewing how far one's speculations are really justified by the evidence to hand.

According to Michael Persinger:
Despite maturational (developmental) shifts in the cognitive schemes by which we assimilate information, there are concepts from previous stages that remain. One of them is the fascination with invisible forces (animism). This idea serves as a conceptual core around which cluster ideas of infantile mysticism, paranormal experiences and sometimes a modified form of omnipotence. It is so closely tied to the concept of self that if care is not taken, magnetotherapies become a personal quest. It acquires dynamics of a belief.

Unfortunately this factor has been ignored, often with arrogant sarcasm, by the very scientists who practice it. However the powerful inertia that accompanies this conceptual core is repeatedly evident. It is manifested by the gradual shift from the use of magnetic fields to treat a specific ailment, to the treatment of all ailments, and then towards mystical or paranormal involvements. [21]
As Jung demonstrated, the unconscious mind stands in compensatory relationship to consciousness. This is to say, a one-sided attitude, an incomplete or self-damaging conscious position, arouses a reaction in the unconscious that is dimly felt as an intangible, invisible force that is undermining one's progress and well-being. Everyone is in this situation to one degree or another. These unconscious processes can scarcely find anything better to be projected into than "scientific" speculations about invisible fields and the magical particles associated with them. Consequently, nearly every investigator into ELF and the rest of it has developed a more or less personally tailored paranoid delusion either about the effects of certain fields, or about governmental or corporation conspiracies behind them, or both.

I want to emphasize very strongly that this is not to say that there is no physical reality corresponding to these marvelous hypothesized fields and forces-or even that it is an error to think of them in terms of metaphysical entities. [22] It is to be expected that the same psychological and social forces that lie behind our renewed mythologies about the invisible also motivate legitimate research that produces objective results. There might even be some reality to the conspiracy theories. However, the claims and enthusiasms that abound among researchers in these areas indicate that personal and collective unconscious processes have been touched upon, and many investigators are being carried away by their own bogeymen and by the same grand old spirits that spoke to our "unscientific" ancestors.


References

1. C. G. Jung, "Analytical Psychology and Education," in The Development of Personality, Collected Works, vol. 17 (CW 17) (New York: Pantheon Books, 1954), p. 89.
2. [Jung,] Nietzsche's Zarathustra: Notes of the Seminar Given in 1934-1939 by C.G. Jung, ed., James L. Jarrett, 2 vols. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988), vol. 2, p. 928.
3. Jung, Aion: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self, CW 9, II (New York: Princeton University Press, 1959), p. 261.
4. Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz, Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie. Continued with the cooperation of Richard Ansch殳z and G. Schultz. 4 vols. (Erlangen and Stuttgart, 1866- 1887), p. 624f.
5. For a discussion of the mythology of "dark matter" and other astrophysical theories, see the addendum, "The Mythology of Dark Matter" in Dennis Stillings, "Images of High Numinosity in Current Popular Culture," Artifex 6, 2 (April 1987)): 14ff. "Images" was also published in Gnosis, 10 (Winter 1989) as "Invasion of the Archetypes."
6. Robert G. Jahn and Brenda J. Dunne, "The Wave Mechanics of Consciousness." Lecture, Second Archaeus Congress, January 13-20, 1989, Moloka'i, Hawaii.
7. Ralph Waldo Emerson, "Nature," in Essays, The Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson, vol. III (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, and Co., 1883), passim.
8. Cited several times in Jung's Collected Works. Baumgartner (Die Philosophie des Alanus de Insulis, II, pt. 4, p. 118) traces this saying to a liber Hermetis or liber Trismegisti, Cod. Par. 6319 and Cod. Vat. 3060. It could also be argued that this image is prefigurative of theories of "zero-point" energy fields.
9. "Demonology," in Lectures and Biographical Sketches, Works, vol. X, p. 15f.
10. Arthur Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Representation, trans., E.F.J. Payne (Indian Hills, Colo.: The Falcon's Wing Press, 1958), p. 155.
11. Nietzsche's Zarathustra, vol. 2, p. 1429.
12. Margins of Reality: The Role of Consciousness in the Physical World (San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1987).
13. For a discussion of the methods and application of the word-association tests, see Jung, Experimental Researches, CW 2 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973), passim.
14. Aion, p. 3.
15. Jung, The Psychogenesis of Mental Disease, CW 3 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1960), p. 263.
16. Varieties of Religious Experience (New York: Modern Library, n.d.), p. 227f.
17. Emmanuel Swedenborg, "Heaven and Its Wonders," also "Hell and the Intermediate State," from Things Heard and Seen, tr. Swedenborg Society, British and Foreign, London, 1875, 、、 191-195. Cited in Henry Corbin "Mundus Imaginalis, or the Imaginary and the Imaginal," Spring (1972): 1-19.
18. The relationship of "peak emotional experiences" with the production of paranormal phenomena is discussed by Jung in "Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle" and in practical detail in Jack Houck, "Conceptual Model of Paranormal Phenomena," Archaeus 1, 1 (Winter 1983): 7-24. Wah-space would be the same as Jack Houck's STU (space-time unit). Wah-space is the topology of the STU. It is how the energy (wah) is organized in relation to consciousness, the complexes of the personal unconscious, and the archetypes. This topology is very changeable, however. It is as though-when you thought about them, or if you had been there-different cities, counties, and states became larger or smaller in size and even replaced or cross-contaminated or overlapped each other when you thought of common characteristics. We see this occurring in ordinary memory.
19. Work is being done, but by only one person I know of: Alianna Maren at the University of Tennessee Space Institute. We discussed these models after she touched on these problems in her 1986 paper on "Representation and Performance Evaluation Approaches in Psi Free-Response Tests"-which was presented at the Parapsychological Association conference in Sonoma. Since then, she has done considerable additional work on the application of theories of perception to the results in ganzfeld studies and on the influence of psychological complexes on displacement.
20. Stillings, Introduction to Ernst Benz's Theology of Electricity: On the Encounter and Explanation of Theology and Science in the 17th and 18th Centuries (Allison Park, Pa.: Pickwick Publications, 1989).
21. See Stillings, "The Primordial Light: Electricity to Paraelectricity," Biochemistry and Bioenergetics 14 (1985).
22. "The Modern Magnetotherapies," in Modern Bioelectricity, ed., Andrew A. Marino (New York: Marcel Dekker, 1988), p. 590.
23. For example, Jung compares the nature of the Trinity to certain particle and energy behavior in "A Psychological Approach to the Trinity" in Psychology and Religion: West and East, CW 11 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1958), p. 187. The trick is to be aware of the symbolic background, not be possessed by it.

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